EFT Tapping Therapy and Free Emotional Freedom Techniques

 Deepak Chopra, MD Deepak Chopra, MD endorses EFT
"EFT offers great healing benefits." 

  
Bruce Lipton, PhD

Author of The Biology of Belief.
"EFT is a simple, powerful process that can profoundly influence gene activity, health and behavior.."

Bruce Lipton, PhD endorses EFT

Bessel Van der Kolk
Professor of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine
"EP techniques and procedures can bring about remarkably rapid changes in the way people feel."

Professor Bessel Van der Kolk

Cheryl Richardson

Author of The Unmistakable Touch of Grace..
"EFT is destined to be a top healing tool for the 21st Century."

Candace Pert,PhD endorses EFT

Eric Robins, MD

Co-author of Your Hands Can Heal you.
"I frequently use EFT for my patients with great results."

Candace Pert,PhD endorses EFT

Jack Canfield 
"The most powerful new transformational technology to come along in years."

60 Jack Canfield

Norm Shealy, MD

Author of Soul Medicine.
"By removing emotional trauma, EFT helps heal physical symptoms too."

Candace Pert,PhD endorses EFT

Donna Eden

Co-Author of The Promise of Energy Psychology.
"EFT is easy, effective, and produces amazing results. I think it should be taught in elementary school."

Donna

Wayne Dyer 
"This really works... I've had great results with tapping in my own life."

Wayne Dyer

Candace Pert, PhD

Author of Molecules of Emotion.
"EFT is at the forefront of the new healing movement."

Candace Pert,PhD endorses EFT

Nathaniel Brandon, PhD
author of The Six Pillars of Self-Esteem
"The techniques of EP have provided me with invaluable tools for working with trauma. No therapist can afford to remain ignorant of this new and exciting field."

Nathaniel Brandon

EFT Research

EFT Research

APA Standards for Empirically Validated Treatments

The State of EFT Research

Types of Reports

Organization of EFT Research Pages

Outcome Studies

Anxiety
Athletic Performance
Depression
Pain & Physical Symptoms
Phobias
PTSD
Weight Loss & Cravings

Clinical Reports

Mechanisms Papers

Review Articles

Studies Presented


Welcome To The EFT Research Pages

There are thousands of stories on this web site written by people who have recovered from a wide variety of physical and psychological challenges using EFT. While such anecdotal evidence is valuable in pointing to what EFT can do, rigorous scientific research has been required in order to establish EFT as an "evidence-based" method that can be used with confidence by medical and psychological professionals in primary care.

These EFT research pages summarize the many studies of EFT published in peer-reviewed professional journals. They begin with an overview of the APA (American Psychological Association) definition of "empirically validated treatments," then describe how EFT meets those criteria, and finally, they organize published abstracts into Outcome Studies, Clinical Reports, Mechanisms Papers, and Review Articles. From the links at the top of this page you can jump to any of these sections immediately.

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APA Standards for Empirically Validated Treatments

EFT Universe supports the evidence-based standards defined by the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 12 (Clinical Psychology) Task Force ("APA standards" for short). These define an "empirically validated treatment" as one for which there are two different controlled trials conducted by independent research teams.

For a treatment to be designated as "efficacious," the studies must demonstrate that the treatment is better than a wait list, placebo, or established efficacious treatment.

To be designated as "probably efficacious," a treatment must have been shown to be better than a wait list in two studies that meet these criteria, or are conducted by the same research team rather than two independent teams. 

The APA standards advocate that studies contain sufficient subjects to achieve a level of statistical significance of p < .05 or greater, which means that there is only one possibility in 20 that the results are due to chance. The current status of EFT as an "evidence-based" practice is summarized in this statement published in the APA journal Review of General Psychology: 

"A literature search identified 51 peer-reviewed papers that report or investigate clinical outcomes following the tapping of acupuncture points to address psychological issues. The 18 randomized controlled trials in this sample were critically evaluated for design quality, leading to the conclusion that they consistently demonstrated strong effect sizes and other positive statistical results that far exceed chance after relatively few treatment sessions. Criteria for evidence-based treatments proposed by Division 12 of the American Psychological Association were also applied and found to be met for a number of conditions, including PTSD." (Feinstein, 2012)

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The State of EFT Research

All the published studies listed below are statistically significant. Many of them are randomized controlled trials or RCTs, a design generally regarded as the Gold Standard of research. EFT has met the APA standards as an "efficacious" or "probably efficacious" treatment for phobias, anxiety, depression, and PTSD. There are several definitions in the field of medicine (as distinguished from the field of psychology) of what constitutes an "evidence-based" treatment.

One of the most useful comes from the US government's National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP).

It requires a standardized description of the method in the form of a manual and training materials, documentation that the treatment was delivered with fidelity to that method, the use of validated and reliable outcome measures, corrections for dropouts (such as an intent-to-treat analysis), appropriate statistical analysis, sample sizes sufficient to produce a probability of p < .05 or better, and publication in a peer-reviewed professional journal.

EFT has been researched in more than 10 countries, by more than 60 investigators, whose results have been published in more than 20 different peer-reviewed journals. These include distinguished top-tier journals such as Journal of Clinical Psychology, the APA journals Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training and Review of General Psychology, and the oldest psychiatric journal in North America, the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.

EFT research includes investigators affiliated with many different institutions.

In the US, these range from Harvard Medical School, to the University of California at Berkeley, to City University of New York, to Walter Reed Military Medical Center, to Texas A&M University, to JFK University. Institutions in other countries whose faculty have contributed to EFT research include Lund University (Sweden), Ankara University (Turkey), Santo Tomas University (Philippines), Lister Hospital (England), Cesar Vallejo University (Peru), and Griffith University (Australia).

The wide variety of institutions, peer-reviewed journals, investigators, and settings that have, in independent research, found EFT to be efficacious, are one indication of the breadth of existing research results.

The next frontier of EFT research is replication of the studies that have not yet been replicated, and investigations into the physiological changes that occur during EFT, using such tools as DNA micro-arrays (gene chips), MEGs (magnetoencephalograms), fMRIs, and neurotransmitter and hormone assays.

The EFT Universe training and certification program is based on "Clinical EFT," a consistent and reliable protocol supported by this extensive base of evidence and clinical practice.

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Types of Reports: Outcome Studies, Clinical Reports, Mechanisms Research, and Review Articles

There are several kinds of research papers listed on these pages. The first is "outcome" research. These studies compare the medical or psychological outcomes of two groups of people with similar symptoms, or the same sample before and after EFT. Outcome studies measure changes in, for instance, pain, depression, or PTSD symptoms.

While an outcome study is designed to answer the research question, "Does this work?" the second kind of paper asks the question, "How does it work?" With EFT having been shown in many outcome studies to work very quickly and reliably for a variety of ailments, researchers have become increasingly interested in the physiological mechanisms of action by which such rapid healing is possible.

So the second category of paper you will find here is mechanisms papers. The third category of paper is the "clinical report." Rather than using validated numerical instruments to assess outcomes, clinical reports describe the use of EFT with special groups, such as people with epilepsy, veterans, children, refugees, or prisoners. They may present a single case.

Finally, there are "review papers." These gather together all the published evidence about a topic, present it in a structured manner, and evaluate that body of knowledge.

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How the EFT Research Pages are Organized

For convenience, and to organize the large number of studies referenced on this site, outcome studies are presented first, by the condition for which data was collected, e.g. Depression, Pain, etc. The titles of studies are listed below the heading. If you click on a title, you jump to the paper's abstract, and if available, the full text of the paper, or a location online where you can obtain it.

A study in which the primary outcome was PTSD symptoms might have also collected data on secondary outcomes such as pain. If so, the study will appear under both headings, with the reference for the secondary outcome marked (S). The abstract tells you the treatment protocol, number of subjects, assessments used, change in symptoms, and statistical significance. Below outcome studies, clinical reports, mechanisms papers, and review articles are listed.

All the studies listed on this page have been published in peer-reviewed professional journals, or submitted for publication after being presented at professional conferences, with a few exceptions. These exceptions are noted as "Informal or Unpublished Research."

These are listed in a separate section at the bottom of the page, since they have not met the rigorous standards inherent in peer review, in which committees of reviewers, usually professors, doctors, psychologists, and statisticians, examine every statement and statistic in a study to make sure that it is correct and credible, and meets the prevailing standards of evidence-based research prior to publication.

Many of these studies have been performed by a team of dedicated volunteers at the National Institute for Integrative Healthcare. A great need exists for money and expertise to perform the next level of research on EFT, to pay for gene chips, lab tests, and data analysis.

If you would like to make a tax-deductible donation or bequest to EFT research, you may do so here through the National Institute for Integrative Healthcare web site. EFT Info and Disclaimer Document.

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Outcome Studies

Outcome studies compare outcomes, e.g. levels of pain, degree of depressive symptoms, either between two groups, or between the same people before and after EFT. The headings below tell you, in alphabetical order, the conditions for which data was gathered in the trials below them.

Anxiety

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Athletic Performance


Depression

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Pain & Physical Symptoms

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Phobias

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PTSD

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Weight Loss, Cravings & Addiction

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Clinical Reports

Clinical Reports describe the use of EFT with various groups, e.g. university students, prisoners, refugees, or abused children. They may contain quantitative data, e.g. scores on symptom assessments, or they may describe the ways in which practitioners can work with this population.

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Mechanisms Papers

The "mechanisms of action" for a technique such as EFT describe what is happening in the body during application of the technique. These papers describe the neurological, epigenetic, psychoneuroimmunological, and hormonal pathways that are believed to be active during EFT sessions.

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Review Articles

Review articles gather all the evidence for a method, such as EFT, or a condition, such as phobias, PTSD, or pain. They review the studies that have been completed, and draw general conclusions about the characteristics of the method. A number of review articles of EFT and/or Energy Psychology have been published in peer-reviewed journals in recent years:

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Studies Presented at Professional Conferences or Informally Presented

These studies have been presented at professional conferences, or informally presented such as in books. They have not been peer reviewed and are thus not to be relied on for the empirical rigor that the review process brings. They should be regarded as suggestive only.

Studies Presented at Professional Conferences

Informal and Unpublished Research

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