Author of The Unmistakable Touch of Grace.
"EFT is destined to be a top healing tool for the 21st Century."
|Eric Robins, MD
Co-author of Your Hands Can Heal you.
"I frequently use EFT for my patients with great results."
"If you're looking for ways to change your life, check out Energy Psychology, it's pretty extraordinary."
|Nathaniel Brandon, PhD
author of The Six Pillars of Self-Esteem
"The techniques of EP have provided me with invaluable tools for working with trauma. No therapist can afford to remain ignorant of this new and exciting field."
Co-Author of The Promise of Energy Psychology.
"EFT is easy, effective, and produces amazing results. I think it should be taught in elementary school."
|Bessel Van der Kolk
Professor of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine
"EP techniques and procedures can bring about remarkably rapid changes in the way people feel."
|Norm Shealy, MD
Author of Soul Medicine.
"By removing emotional trauma, EFT helps heal physical symptoms too."
|Candace Pert, PhD
Author of Molecules of Emotion.
"EFT is at the forefront of the new healing movement."
|Bruce Lipton, PhD
Author of The Biology of Belief.
"EFT is a simple, powerful process that can profoundly influence gene activity, health and behavior."
"This really works... I've had great results with tapping in my own life."
|Deepak Chopra, MD
"EFT offers great healing benefits."
"The most powerful new transformational technology to come along in years."
- Parent Category: English
Note: This article assumes you have a working knowledge of EFT. Newcomers can still learn from it but are advised to get our Free EFT Get Started Package or our EFT Books and EFT Trainings for a more complete understanding. For more, read our EFT Info and Disclaimer Document.
Methodological problems in Waite and Holder (2003) preclude meaningful interpretations about Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT)
Robert Pasahow, PhD
Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, & Treatment, (2010), 2(2), 57-72.
Citation (APA Style): Pasahow, R. (2010). Methodological problems in Waite and Holder (2003) preclude meaningful interpretations about Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT). Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, & Treatment, 2(2), 57-72. doi:10.9769.EPJ.2010.2.2.RP
Energy psychology (EP) represents a paradigm for the treatment of mental health problems. A number of studies and case reports have demonstrated its efficacy in reducing psychological conflicts and symptoms. Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) are the most extensively researched model of EP. For EFT to be classified as an empirically based treatment according to American Psychological Association (APA) Division 12 Task Force criteria, research needs to demonstrate its efficacy in a number of experimental and clinical settings. It is also necessary to provide alternative explanations when experimental data are interpreted as disproving major hypotheses. In Waite and Holder’s (2003) study on EFT, inclusion of two sham treatment groups and a control group attempted to isolate the factors that cause symptom reduction. Initial reviewers interpreted these data as disproving the fundamental hypothesis of EFT. The APA’s Continuing Education Committee cited this study as 1 factor for disputing the scientific basis of EFT. Subsequent analyses have interpreted this study as being supportive of EFT hypotheses. However, numerous statistical omissions, incorrect applications of EFT procedures, and insufficient treatment time preclude meaningful conclusions regarding EFT. The only dependent variable was participants’ fear ratings, which many researchers do not consider an adequate outcome measure. Multidimensional assessments would have provided more precise data and limited how much demand characteristics influenced the results.
Keywords: Thought Field Therapy (TFT), Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT), energy psychology, research, anxiety.